Imbalances of Inflammatory Responses May Lead to Parkinson’s Disease.Posted on Wednesday, April, 29th, 2015 by in Boosting Immune Responses (Pro-Inflammatory) | Chronic Disease | Depression | Fatigue | Immune Homeostasis (Immune Balance) | Inflammation
Parkinson’s is a disease of the nervous system that affects mobility, memory, and cognition. Individuals may eventually experience rigid muscles, tremors of the limbs and head, loss of muscle control, monotonous speech levels, and a slow, shuffling gait.
Individuals tend to develop the disease as they age. Having a close relative with Parkinson’s disease (PD) increases the likelihood of developing Parkinson’s, with men more than 1.5 times more likely to develop the disease than females.
Although the causes of Parkinson’s disease are not clear, a recent study suggests that individuals with a specific gene are at a higher risk of getting Parkinson’s disease if they were exposed to pyrethroids, a class of chemicals found in the majority of household insecticides. Exposure of individuals to these pesticides may result in brain tissue inflammation.
Inflammation and Autoimmune Responses
In Parkinson’s disease, the body mounts an inflammatory response against its own brain cells, its dopaminergic neurons. (An immune response against oneself is called an autoimmune response.)
These specialized brain cells produce a biochemical called dopamine with many functions including controlling bodily movements, memory, ability to think, mood, and learning. The body’s long-lasting inflammatory response against its own nervous cells gradually destroys the dopaminergic neurons resulting in abnormal dopamine levels and brain activity, symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease.
Microglial cells are specialized immune cells located in the brain. They are considered the “canary in the mine”. When microglial cells sense a threat, they become “activated” and release immune factors that may, depending on the types and amounts of these molecules, be beneficial or cause damage to nerve cells.
Activated microglial cells are found in large numbers in the brains of Parkinson’s patients, along with high levels of cytokines, biochemical molecules responsible for inflammation.
The brain and spine of the nervous system are cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps to provide nutrients to the nervous system and removes waste products from the brain.
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease have high levels of immune inflammatory molecules in their spinal fluid. The more concentrated the molecules, the more likely the person is to severe fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment.
Certain genes that control immune system responses are also strongly linked with the development of Parkinson’s disease.
Increasingly, scientific studies suggest that inflammation and autoimmune responses result in Parkinson’s disease.
Helping the body limit out-of-control inflammation, and achieving a more homeostatic, more balanced immune response, may go a long way towards changing the quality of life in individuals with Parkinson’s.
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