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HIV, or the human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that left untreated may lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. Unlike some other viruses, even with treatment some people infected with HIV may never eliminate the virus.

In an animal model of HIV, within 24 hours of infection, the virus hitches a ride on immune cells and travels throughout the body. HIV has a special propensity for immune cells, especially T cells. T cells help the body fight infections by activating the production of antibodies (large molecules that neutralize pathogens) and triggers inflammation to kill pathogens or destroy cells containing microbes. Left untreated, HIV infection reduces the numbers of defensive immune cells in the body, leaving HIV infected people (HIV positive) highly vulnerable to infection with other foreign agents (opportunistic infections) and cancers.

DC (dendritic cell)- A type of immune cell that plays a primary role in infections with HIV.
They are important regulators of immune system responses to infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033703/

 

From 80-90% of immune cells are found in the walls of the intestines and in the tissues surrounding the intestines. HIV tends to accumulate in these tissues and attack them. These inflammatory responses may weaken the gut barrier resulting in inflammatory digestive issues for HIV positive individuals.

“Inflammation and immune activation accelerate heart disease and stroke, and chronic HIV infection results in both,” says Robert T. Schooley, AIDS researcher and Professor of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases division at the University of California at San Francisco. In addition, this population is at increased risk for certain cancers, gastrointestinal, liver and kidney problems.

There are no cures for HIV, but with proper medical care, the numbers of virus infecting a person and their symptoms may be controlled. Proper medical treatment dramatically improves and prolongs lives. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART or ARV) is used to treat HIV infections.

When the “cocktail” of medications is taken as prescribed, viral loads (the number of viruses in the body) are decreased. These medications can reduce the numbers of HIV down to very low levels (called “undetectable”). However, in some individuals HIV can continue to infect immune cells. [Note: The CDC states that individuals with undetectable virus loads have no risk of sexually transmitting the virus.]

The body must be in immune balance, in immune homeostasis to protect the body from infection or fight infections. The immune system must produce the right ratio of inflammatory cytokines (pro-inflammatory) to anti-inflammatory cytokines. It needs enough inflammation to destroy the pathogen, or in this case HIV, but not so much that healthy tissues are damaged.

A recent study of people that have been treated over many years for HIV reports that HIV positive individuals are at a higher risk of getting diseases common to older individuals. Individuals that were infected in the early years with HIV are now in their 50s and 60s and develop inflammatory-related conditions at a significantly higher rate and lower age than uninfected people of the same age.

Summary:

The key to staying healthy is to remain in immune homeostasis, immune balance—this is true especially for people with chronic infections such as HIV.

 

Please contact Dr. Hellen if you wish to enhance your quality of life-don’t you deserve to do that?  The first 30 minutes of discussion are gratis. Dr. Hellen may be  contacted by using this form or calling:  302.265.3870 (ET-USA).
www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/484
www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/art/index.html
www.catie.ca/en/treatmentupdate/treatmentupdate-223/inflammation-and-hiv/exploring-hiv-and-inflammation
www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/09/14/418012
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867400806947

 

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Lyme disease is the fastest growing vector-borne, infectious disease in the United States with a 25 fold increase in the number of cases since surveillance of the disease began in 1982. World-wide, there are over 300 strains of these bacteria, many of which tolerate antibiotics and are able to evade immune cells.

Tick Borne Infections:
Lyme disease is associated with infected ticks and may be contacted after engaging in outdoor activities. The infected ticks bite through the skin of a person or animal, getting a blood meal and introducing the bacteria into the body. (Typically the tick has to be attached for 36 or more hours before the bacteria is passed to the host.) Symptoms may include: skin rash and painful inflammation of joints (particularly the knees) and be accompanied by flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue and chills.

Diagnostic Testing:
Diagnostic tests are only 29-40% accurate in the first three weeks after infection. Once the infection spreads to the nervous system and joints, accuracy increases. After treatment, even when test results are “negative”, live organisms may still be found in organs. Early treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications are helpful, but if left untreated, joints, heart, brain, muscles and brain may become involved– sometimes months or years later.

Nervous System Involvement:
About 15 percent of patients with Lyme disease develop nervous system (spine, brain, etc.) inflammation. This event is accompanied by debilitating and painful muscle and joint symptoms and major neurologic changes such as facial nerve palsy, pain radiating along the back into the legs and feet, limb pain, sensory loss and/or muscle weakness.

Inflammation results in injuries to the brain and spinal cord and may result in severe headaches, fatigue, memory loss, learning disability, depression and cognitive problems.

Inflammatory immune factors are increased in the body, recruiting more inflammatory white blood cells into the brain and the spinal cord. The healthy immune cells that protect nerve cells are damaged or destroyed by the inflammation. No longer protected, nerve cells are damaged even more.

Lingering Symptoms:
A major issue with tick-borne infections is that even after treatment; up to 25% of individuals may have persistent painful joint inflammation and other symptoms lasting months or years.

There are two factors that may account for this:
a) Small numbers of bacteria remain which the immune system has not been able to successfully eliminate.
b)Once the infection is over, traces of long-lasting bacterial proteins are found within and around the joints. These proteins trigger inflammatory responses resulting in significant joint, muscle and nerve pain. It is the body’s immune response to these residual proteins, rather than a lingering infection that results in symptoms.

Summary:
As always, the key to an active quality of life is to help the body maintain immune balance– its homeostasis. Exercise (suggested: 2.5 hours a week), maintaining a healthy weight, eating smart, going outdoors for a few minutes a day, and taking an excellent immune support product will make all the difference in one’s health.

 

Achieving immune homeostasis will make a difference in your life. Contact me, DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info, use the form or give me a call at 302.265.3870 and let us talk.

http://www.ilads.org/lyme/lyme-quickfacts.php
http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/index.html
https://www.statnews.com/2017/06/28/early-lyme-tests/
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ajp.amjpathol.org/article/S0002-9440(15)00123-6/fulltext
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www.news-medical.net/news/20171214/Study-Living-Lyme-disease-bacteria-found-months-after-antibiotic-treatment.aspx

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this flu season is an unusually severe outbreak with wide-spread instances of disease in 49 States with many schools being closed. The season started earlier than usual, which is never a good sign.   CDC Deputy Director Anne Schuchat has said “This year’s influenza season is proving particularly difficult”. Hospitals do not have enough beds and the prevalence of the flu has led to shortages of anti-viral medications that if prescribed in the first 48 hours may shorten symptoms by a day or so.

This season’s primary virus strain is H3N2, a deadly type of influenza A that tends to result in more severe illness and higher numbers of hospitalizations and deaths than other strains. H3N2 is especially dangerous for the frail elderly and children, although people between the ages of 50 and 64 are being hospitalized at alarming rates, second only to the elderly.  As of this post, almost 100 children have already died from the flu.

Since vaccination may lessen the severity of the illness and there are  few other options, the CDC recommends people be vaccinated with the current flu vaccine, even though it may only be 30% -40% effective. [Antibiotics are useless against viruses since they only kill bacteria.]

Although some people view the flu as “merely” annoying and inconvenient, those suffering from influenza along with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), asthma, emphysema, diabetes and other pre-existing conditions are at a higher risk of hospitalization or death, especially if they contract a secondary bacterial infection.

The influenza virus is difficult for the body to protect itself from, because it is able to mutate rapidly and frequently. This forces the immune system to constantly change its tactics to combat the latest version of the flu.

Infection by influenza triggers an intense immune inflammatory response in the lungs in the body’s attempt to stop the virus from multiplying. The lungs’ immune cells release cytokines, small molecules that signal and recruit other cells into the lungs to increase or decrease their immune and inflammatory responses.

Lisa Brown JPEG

But such a response can be a double edged sword. Too much inflammation causes lung damage on top of the damage already caused by the virus and secondary bacterial infections such as pneumonia. Additionally, although rare, if the balance of cytokines is significantly upset, the normal level of inflammatory cytokines may become too high, resulting in a cytokine storm (or cytokine cascade) that can kill a previously healthy individual in hours.

A properly balanced immune system, one in homeostasis, is more fully prepared to defend us against invasion by foreign agents, and is ready to help us combat an infection if we get one.

Following the following steps will help keep your immune system functioning at optimum levels:

  1. Eat healthful meals with an emphasis on whole grains and plenty of colorful vegetables and fruits.
  2. Be physical active to help keep the immune system in balance; incorporate it into your daily life.
  3. Get adequate amounts of rest and avoid fatigue.
  4. Drink plenty of fluids to keep membranes moist and more resistant to invasion.
  5. Wash your hands frequently and try to keep them away from your face.
  6. Stop, or at least cut down, on your smoking—your lungs are struggling enough.
  7. Consume a superior immune support supplement to help your immune system balance.
Dr. Hellen’s passion is helping people have a better quality of life. Contact her by using this form, drhellen@drhellengreenblatt.info, or calling at: 302.265.3870 (ET, USA).
www.cdc.gov/flu/index.htm
www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/summary.htm
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711683
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24728596

www.businessinsider.com/baby-boomers-hospitalized-with-the-flu-what-is-imprinting-2018-1

As of this writing, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta is strongly recommending that pregnant woman postpone travel to many countries across the world, including the popular Caribbean islands.  The CDC is taking these steps due to the possibility that these women may become are infected with a mosquito borne virus called Zika.  The World Health Organization (WHO) Director General Dr Margaret Chan, has said that Zika had gone “from a mild threat to one of alarming proportions” and expects the virus to spread through the Americas and affect between three million and four million people.

Eighty percent of individuals who are infected with Zika do not show symptoms.  However, when symptoms do occur, they can last up to a week or so and include fever, rash, pink eye, and joint pain. Some clinicians suggest that Zika virus infection may result in the autoimmune [against oneself] condition,  Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).  This is rare disorder where too much inflammation damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and may lead to paralysis.

The greatest concern however right now is that health agencies “strongly suspect” that when a pregnant women is bitten by a mosquito that is carring the virus, that even if she does not experience symptoms, that her offspring may develop brain malformations.

This latest outbreak adds to concerns that infectious diseases are one of the top threats challenging our world—a major topic on the agenda of last week’s World Economic Forum world leader attendees.  Until vaccines or treatments are developed, viral infections such as Zika, Ebola, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) remain a threat to the world’s population.

Currently, there are no commercially available vaccines or treatments for Zika.  Until recently the cost to develop a successful vaccine was far greater than what the manufacturers would recoup in vaccine sales.  However, development of a vaccine for Zika will likely now escalate since Zika has spread so widely, infecting over 1.5 million individuals and its being linked to neurological problems, especially in newborns.

In addition to a lack of vaccines and treatments for a multitude of viral diseases, another significant health-care crisis we are facing is treatment of infection by anti-microbial-resistant pathogens. As Dr. Keiji Fukudaof the World Health Organization has stated:  “We really hope to pull the world back from the brink where antibiotics don’t work anymore”.

When bacteria are stressed, for example by a killer antibiotic, their genetic material may change, mutate, so that they can tolerate and become resistant to such compounds.  The bacteria can then replicate easily and outgrow bacterial strains that were not resistant to the antibiotic.

Fifty percent of antibiotic prescriptions written by U.S. physicians are of no benefit to the patient, and when used to fatten livestock and poultry it gives bacteria even more opportunity to acquire antibiotic tolerance.

It is our immune systems that identify, destroy, and remove invading pathogens.   When our body recognizes that it has been invaded by foreign agents, a strong inflammatory responses is triggered to meet the onslaught of the pathogens.  White blood cells accumulate in the area to combat the invaders.  These immune cells release cytokines and other immune messages  recruiting more white blood cells in an attempt to “burn out” the infection. Without a powerful inflammatory response, we cannot limit or survive infections.

In the absence of drugs or treatments that prevent and control the growth of viruses and other microorganism the immune system must be optimized to protect the body against them.

 

www.cdc.gov/mmwr/index.html
www.scientificamerican.com/article/who-extremely-alarmed-by-zika-cases-could-reach-4-million/?WT.mc_id=SA_DD_20160128
www.wsj.com/articles/health-threats-spur-vaccine-hunt-1453337493
ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/zika_virus_infection/factsheet-health-professionals/Pages/factsheet_health_professionals.aspx
www.vox.com/2016/1/20/10795562/zika-virus-cdc-mosquitoes-birth-defects
www.wsj.com/articles/SB105768561135341800
www.cdc.gov/features/antibioticresistancethreats/
www.cdc.gov/media/dpk/2013/images/untreatable/img2_sm.jpg
www.bbc.com/news/health-35427493

One of the major complaints that people have is that “they are always tired”. “They just do not care anymore, they are just too tired.” [Kindly view a post that is relevant to this subject: Depression, Anhedonia and Run-Away Inflammation.]

In the past, scientists thought that there was a blood-brain barrier that “isolated” the brain from the actions of the immune system. They labeled the brain “immune privileged”; because studies suggested that a healthy brain had few, if any inflammatory cells in it. Only when there was a brain infection did scientists think that immune cells migrated into the brain.

Researchers failed to take into account that chronic inflammatory diseases are associated the brain. For example conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis may result in a lack of social interest, feelings of being unwell and unremitting fatigue—all which are governed by brain function.

Inflammation is activated when the body encounters pathogens and cancerous cells. The inflammatory response is a primary means by which the body will destroy these threats. Inflammation is basically a controlled “burn”.  Firefighters will often have a “controlled burn” in a forest to get rid of dead trees and limbs.  They strive to keep the fire limited to a specific area.  Sometimes however firefighters are unable to control the fire and acres of forest are burned in error.

Similarly, once immune cells have taken care of a threat to the body, for example cancer cells, pathogens, etc., it is essential that the immune system “turn” down the inflammatory “flame”. Chronic, unnecessary inflammation leads to many autoimmune diseases that destroy their own organs, such as diabetes, Crohn’s bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and lupus

Inflammation is all about location, location, location. If one has inflammation in the insulin-producing cells that control blood sugar, the person may get diabetes. If their intestines are inflamed they may suffer from Crohn’s.  If there is too much destruction and inflammation of nerve cells, they may suffer from multiple sclerosis.

Let us hypothesize that an individual has two trillion immune white blood cells and that half of these cells are out of control and producing too strong an inflammatory response. This inflammation is destroying previously healthy tissues and organs.  Since the body is always striving to balance inflammation, the other half a trillion of cells are working towards lowering the amount of inflammation and destruction that is going on in the body

Each of these cells is expending a trivial amount of energy trying to accomplish its task, but a tiny amount of energy multiplied by two trillion cells is a great deal of “wasted energy”. Is it any wonder why these people complain of being tired?

Individuals who have been diagnosed with autoimmune conditions have higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, immune messages, than people without disease. In heart failure patients, significant fatigue is associated with poor recovery and a higher risk of death. Patients with high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, molecules that decrease inflammation, recover more fully and rapidly than patients with high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. When patients are treated for their heart problems, their cytokine levels begin to resemble the cytokine ratios of healthy individuals, and their energy returns.

In mice with liver inflammation, immune cells from the liver travel to the brain and trigger other specialized immune cells called microglia releasing a biochemical that attracts more inflammatory cells into the brain, which in turn produces more inflammation.

In individuals with multiple sclerosis, a nervous system disease with a major inflammatory component, patients had less fatigue when they took anti-inflammatory medications.

The association of appropriate levels of inflammation with a healthy brain and high energy reserves is clear; the key is being in immunological balance. Once individuals balance inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cells they typically regain their energy and focus.

Aren’t you tired of being tired all the time? Don’t wait any longer. Contact Dr. Hellen to talk bout enhancing your quality of life.  There is no fee for consulting with her for the first 30 minutes.  She may be contacted by using this form or at: 302.265.3870 (ET, USA).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905315
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905315
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589194
http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/43120/title/Brain-Drain/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26705751
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682012

 

Delirium is an under-reported condition that may affect up to 56% of older individuals after surgery, patients that have been heavily sedated for a length of time, burn, cancer, and patients on ventilators for long periods. Patients experience vivid hallucinations that may be part of a vicious cycle if doctors attempt to control the delusions with larger amounts of sedatives; the medications may disorient and confuse the patient even more.

The delusions and accompanying cognitive issues can persist for months after patients leave the hospital and can lead to a misdiagnosis of dementia, rather than delirium. [Dementia develops gradually and gradually worsens, while delirium may be of sudden onset.]

Delirium is associated with excessive inflammation in the brain resulting from triggering specialized immune cells the microglia. If stimulated over a long time, the cells release inflammatory cytokines, molecules that damage nerve cells and contribute to damage and break down of the capillaries in the brain, the blood-brain barrier.

C-reactive protein, CRP, is one measure of inflammation. CRP levels were measured in elderly surgical patients who had ended up with complications such as delirium, cardiovascular issues, or infection. The levels of CRP in their blood were predictive as to how fully they recovered.

A recent study measured the levels of 12 different inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in older patients undergoing surgery. Those having episodes of delirium had consistently high levels of inflammatory cytokines as compared to patients that did not have high levels of cytokines. Similar results were seen in patients that developed delirium after procedures such as open-heart surgery and hip fracture repair.

Conclusion

In order for the body to heal after it is hurt, or to fight an infection successfully, a delicate balance of cytokines, immune messages are required. Too little of an inflammatory response and the individual may not survive an infection. Too much of an inflammatory response and healthy tissue is destroyed. Homeostasis, balance, is what the body strives for every moment.

Dr. Hellen would be pleased to provide guidance to helping enhance your quality of life.  She may be contacted by using this form or at: 302.265.3870 (ET, USA).

 

www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/06/the-overlooked-danger-of-delirium-in-hospitals/394829/
www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/delirium/basics/definition/con-20033982
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2911011
intl-biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/07/24/gerona.glv083.full
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210833511000773
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17504139

 

 

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral disease of the lungs that was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and has now spread to several other countries, including South Korea and the United States. Genetic material isolated from an individual that died of MERS was identical to genetic material found in one of his own camels. The infected camel possibly infected the owner and is responsible for the death of the man.

 People infected with the virus initially report mild symptoms of a cold, chills, body aches, sore throat, fever, difficulty in breathing, and a cough.  Some individuals report gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.  When symptoms become severe, death may follow failure of the lungs and kidneys.

Most of individuals that have succumbed to infection with MERS suffered with other medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, chronic lung conditions, heart, or kidney disease.

MERS and SARS

There is limited scientific information on MERS.  However, the MERS virus is in the same family of viruses as SARS, the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. Infection with this virus results in severe breathing difficulties which too frequently results in death. (Both the traveling businessman and his World Health Organization physician, Dr. Carlo Urbani who identified the infection as a new disease in the business person, died of the virus.)

 Although there are similarities in symptoms, two major differences between MERS and SARS are: a) MERS progresses to lung failure more rapidly than SARS and b) MERS affects older individuals more than it does younger people. [The high numbers of fatalities from MERS may be related to the older age of infected persons and the fact that individuals with other conditions are more susceptible to respiratory failure].

 Since so little is understood about the disease, people with diabetes, lung, kidney, and immune disorders should take precautions if they are exposed to infected individuals.

The Immune System and Infections

The only part of the body that protects us from infection is our immune system. The role of the immune system is to recognize threats from pathogens, stop, and then up regulate inflammatory responses to destroy the pathogens before they can multiply.

 When the immune system is recognizes invasion by pathogens, immune cells are triggered to produce antibodies and other immune factors, such as cytokines. Cytokines are proteins that help recruit immune cells into an area to help fight the battle, and orchestrate the protective immune responses.In SARS, an over-response of the immune system,  a “cytokine storm” occurs that too often results in the deaths of infected persons.  It is likely that infection with MERS triggers the production of high levels of cytokines, resulting in excessive inflammation and death.

Summary:

People with unbalanced immune systems are at higher risk of having severe symptoms when infected with pathogens.  It is essential that the immune system always be in balance, in homeostasis for optimal protection from disease.

The inflammatory response to infection has to be a controlled, limited response. There must be enough of an immune response to defend the body against disease, but not so great an inflammatory response that the body is harmed.


www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/
www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1401505
www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007192
www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/
www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1401505

Borrelia burgdorferi, is a bacterial infection that results from an infected tick, originally from mammals or birds, biting and injecting the microorganism into a human host. Individuals treated early in infection are likely to recover completely; however, delaying treatment may result in long recovery times, or result in disease that will last for years, or for life.

Infection Affects Multiple Organ Systems
Lyme disease can affect any organ or multiple systems including, skin, joints, nervous system, muscles, and skin. Early symptoms are a red, expanding rash, erythema migrans, that often appears at the tick bite site, and flu-like symptoms such as body aches, fever, chills, headache, and fatigue.

Left untreated, unfocused severe pain may, irregular heart beat and other heart problems, chronic inflammation of the joints (especially the knees, i.e., Lyme arthritis), liver inflammation (hepatitis) and eye problems. Unremitting fatigue, memory problems, and brain “fog” may also accompany the disease.

Incomplete recovery from Lyme disease may result in significant neurological problems, including Bell’s palsy (paralysis of one side of the face), weakness or numbness of limbs, impaired muscle movement, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes).

Twenty to fifty percent of patients with neurological issues may continue to experience difficulties for years.

Immune Responses to Lyme Infection
The extent of recovery from Lyme disease depends on factors such as the numbers of bacteria initially injected and the types of immune responses triggered by the infection.

As with healing from most infections, recovery from Lyme disease is a highly complex process requiring the correct interplay of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune regulating molecules. Successful recovery requires a homeostatic, a balanced immune attack with enough inflammation to kill the organism without damaging by-stander cells and organs.

For example, the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates inflammation but is also, depending on what the body needs, able to decrease inflammatory responses. (IL-6 is also triggers pain receptors and helps nerve cells regenerate.) Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is another cytokine that helps the body control the amount of inflammation produced in response to infection.

Another cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine that stimulates certain immune cells to find, engulf, and digest invading organisms. Mice susceptible to Lyme disease are unable to manufacture enough of this factor which may account for their susceptibility.

In humans as well, patients that were recovering well had significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α compared to those with on-going disease. Once again, these responses likely reflect the powerful inflammatory response that helps the body eliminate the disease.

Additionally, recovering infected individuals had higher levels of transforming growth factor than individuals with severe symptoms. These findings suggest that transforming growth factor was successfully limiting the amount of inflammation being produced in response to infection.

Similarly, in mice with Lyme arthritis, animals that did best were those in which high TNF-α cytokine levels helped kill the bacteria, followed by an aggressive IL-6 response that dampened the inflammatory response.

In further support of these findings, patients with rashes (early infection) had high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor, as compared to those who had more severe neurological involvement.

Conclusion:
The body uses inflammatory responses to protect itself from infection and heal itself. Inflammation helps the body destroy organisms, almost as if the body was “burning” the infection out. However, just like a forest fire, if inflammation is not well controlled the person with Lyme disease may suffer symptoms for years or for life. This is why it is essential for the body to produce a balanced, immune inflammatory response to infection.

 

Contact Dr. Hellen at: 302.265.3870 (ET), DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info, or by using the contact form: http://drhellengreenblatt.info/contact-dr-hellen.


www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease/basics/definition/con-20019701
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782772/
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945160
www.youtube.com/watch?v=xuTlC_0KzGU VIDEO
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991005/

The act of conceiving, getting pregnant, requires many steps among which are: release of an egg from a follicle (ovulation), fertilization of the egg by sperm, transport of the egg through the Fallopian tubes to the uterus, and attachment to the uterine wall, (implantation).

Each step to becoming pregnant must occur in the right order and requires interaction with hormonal and immune system pathways.

Infertility is the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Ten to 15% of reproductive-age couples are unable to conceive. Thirty percent of the time infertility is due to issues with both the man and the woman, or no cause can be determined (idiopathic infertility).

Infertility Issues:
Hormonal and/or immunological imbalances.
Hormonal imbalances affect the way the body interacts with the immune system and affects the ability to conceive.

Seminal fluid, the liquid from male testicles that delivers sperm to the egg contains hormones, cytokines, and other immune messages that interact with the cells lining the female reproductive tract. The factors in seminal fluid prepare the site to receive sperm and set up the proper environment for implantation of the egg. The sequence of events resembles an inflammatory response, but too much inflammation can result in infertility issues.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:
Common pelvic inflammatory diseases such as appendicitis and colitis result in inflammation of the abdominal cavity, which in turn may affect the Fallopian tubes and lead to scarring and blockage of the tubes. Since the Fallopian tubes are the pathway by which the egg gets to the uterus for implantation, implantation may not occur. Abdominal surgery, scar tissue, and sexually transmitted infections can also result in inflammatory pelvic disease.

Endometriosis is an inflammatory and hormonal condition that occurs when the tissues lining the uterus grow and spread outside of the uterus. They release blood at menses, the monthly cycle. Thirty-five to fifty percent of infertility cases in women are due to endometriosis.

Poor Egg or Sperm Quality.
Life style decisions such as abuse of alcohol or drugs, smoking, poor diet, obesity, lack of consistent physical activity, and environmental factors may all contribute to poor viability of the egg or sperm.

Smoking contributes greatly to inflammatory responses of the body.

If either partner smokes, the chances of conceiving, via natural or clinical means, are reduced by 33%. Smoking by men lowers their sperm counts and affects the health of their reproductive organs. Women who smoke take longer to conceive compared to non-smokers and are at increased risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low-birth-weight babies. Even women who do not smoke, but live in homes where they are passively exposed to smokers, may take more than a year longer to become pregnant than women living in smoke-free homes.

Infections and Medical Conditions.
Women and men with sexually transmitted diseases often show no symptoms. Untreated infections can result in excessive inflammatory responses which damage and scar reproductive organs.

Anti-sperm antibodies
Up to 50% of infertility problems in women and men may be associated with the presence of anti-sperm antibodies, large immune proteins that attach to the sperm and trigger immune responses.

In women, antibodies to sperm may attack her partner’s sperm and result in inflammation and damage of vaginal tissues. Over 70% of all men who get a vasectomy develop anti-sperm antibodies. If damaged sperm fertilizes an egg, chances of a miscarriage increase.

Summary:
The reasons behind idiopathic infertility are not understood. It has been my experience that when couples focus on returning to immune balance, to immune homeostasis, they appear to enhance their chances of having children.

Contact Dr. Hellen with the contact form, or  302.265.3870 (ET) or at DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info.


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During the 1970′s and 80′s, the saga of the “boy in the bubble” was followed with great interest. David Vetter, a young Texas boy had severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a disease caused by life-threatening defects in his immune system. His immune system was unable to protect him from infection, resulting in the necessity of having to live in a germ-free, isolation containment center designed by NASA engineers. He lived in this plastic bubble from the time of this birth until he died at the age of 12 following a failed bone marrow transplant.

The containment center was supposed to keep David separated from any pathogens that might harm him. Unfortunately, it was likely that it was a virus-contaminated bone marrow transplant that resulted in lymphoma, an immune system cancer, which ended David’s life.

Living in a sea of pathogens, a functional immune system is essential for our survival. Inflammation is among the first steps the body takes to heal after injury or disease and it uses immune inflammatory responses to protect us from cancer cells and pathogens. But too much inflammation is as serious a problem as too little inflammation. The body constantly struggles to limit the amount of inflammation that it produces, with uncontrollable amounts of inflammation acting like as if it was an out-of-control forest fire, destroying healthy cells in its path.

The four letters “itis” indicate an inflammatory condition. Typically, the name of the disease depends on the location in which the inflammation occurs. For example, arthritis (inflammation of the joints), colitis (inflammation of the intestinal tract, the colon), dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), nephritis (inflammation of the kidney), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and uveitis (inflammation of a part of the eye).

Most immune cells do not have specialized names, however some organs have specialized inflammatory immune cells that detect infection and help resolve infection or injury to the body. Kupffer cells are most often associated with the liver. Microglia are associated with the brain and are involved in repairing damaged brain tissue and protecting the brain against disease. Dust cells, also known as alveolar macrophages, carry out similar functions in the lungs.

Inflammation is like real estate: location, location, location. The process of inflammation is substantially the same no matter where in the body the inflammation occurs. The intensity of the inflammatory response is determined by a balance between pro-inflammatory (molecules that cause inflammation) and anti-inflammatory (molecules that dampen inflammation) cytokines, immune messages that are released by immune cells.

The key to healthy immune responses is to be in immune homeostasis, immune balance. We must maintain the balance of enough inflammation to defend ourselves from pathogens, stimulate repair, and healing against the need to limit the amount of inflammation that too often leads to inflammatory diseases.

Contact Dr. Hellen for guidance in utilizing natural means to help the body return to immune homeostasis. She may be reached at:  DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info or or at 302.265.3870.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22254/
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720329
www.thedoctorwillseeyounow.com/content/mind/art3792.html?getPage=2
www.hindawi.com/journals/cherp/2012/490804/

 

Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. As of this post, the virus has spread through many African nations, and is the worst Ebola outbreak every recorded. The virus has infected over 1200 people and abuot 60% of these individuals have died from the disease.

Health practitioners have put themselves at great risk caring for those who have become infected. According to the BBC, one hundred health workers have been affected and half of them have died. At least three high-profile physicians in the forefront of care have succumbed to the virus, and three nurses who worked in the same treatment center as one of the physicians, are believed to have died from the virus.

Two Americans working to battle Ebola in Liberia, one a physician, have tested positive for the virus and are undergoing intensive treatment and workers from Doctors without Borders and the Red Cross are “overwhelmed” for the virus that has no cure.

Depending on the type of Ebola virus, up to 90% of those infected can die a rapid and difficult death. The onset of symptoms may be characterized by a sudden spiking fever, headache, joint, muscle, and stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and in some cases, uncontrolled internal and external bleeding. Infected individuals die from failure of multiple organs in the body such as the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

The disease is characterized by abnormal immune responses in which the Ebola viruses appear to evade attack of immune cells; dramatic immune imbalances occur in response to infection. There is evidence that the immune system responds with a “cytokine” storm during which certain immune cells “dump” large amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules, cytokines, into the body. Other biological compounds are released as well that contribute to the confused immune response.

Additionally, specialized cells produce insufficient amount of anti-viral cytokines, while at the same time, there is a significant increase in death of other types of immune cells. Scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases call this “a mixed anti-inflammatory response syndrome (MARS)”, and suggest that this “catastrophic uncontrolled immunological status contributes to the development of fatal hemorrhagic fever”.

Perhaps some of the symptoms that patients experience are due to autoimmune responses against individual classes of lymphocytes. This would account for the loss of certain immune cells, such as CD4 and CD8 cells. If they were available in higher numbers, they might be able to help the body fight the infection.

Many immunological factors contribute to Ebola virus fatalities. It is my contention that if  individuals were able to achieve immune homeostasis, immune balance, they would be better equipped to mount  controlled inflammatory responses which might help control the course of the disease.

 www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/fact-sheet.pdf
www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/t0728-ebola.html
www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/
www.nasw.org/users/mslong/2010/2010_09/Ebola.htm
www.vox.com/2014/7/23/5930311/ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-africa-facts-guinea?utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=voxdotcom&utm_content=Sunday
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20957152
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21987781
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC368745/

Nearly every day people tell me that their joints are swollen and stiff, they hurt all over, and that they look and feel older than their chronological age. Most of these individuals have been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis is a sign of a “boosted” immune system with excessive inflammation leading to joint damage. People report pain in areas such as their backs, fingers, hands, wrists, knees, and shoulders.

Rheumatoid arthritis typically affects the joints of the body. However sometimes even before joint symptoms appear, rheumatoid arthritis can involve other parts of the body including the lungs or eyes. Long-term inflammation of the lungs leads to scarring and shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, and an on-going, chronic dry cough. If the pleura, the tissues around the lungs, become inflamed, fluid buildup may result in fever, pain when taking a breath, and difficulty in breathing.

Inflammation Is Essential for Our Survival:
Clinicians, and most lay people, focus on the harmful aspects of inflammation and try to stop the inflammatory response at all costs. Instead, all that is needed is to control the this immune response. The process of inflammation is normal, protective, and absolutely essential for our survival. Inflammation is the first step to healing after an injury or when the body is gathering its forces to stop an infection. Immune inflammation also helps the body destroy cancer cells before they grow and multiply.

When the body recognizes it has been injured or infected, the immune system releases antibodies and cytokines, smaller proteins that attract different types of immune cells into an area, to help eliminate and destroy threats to the body.

Once healing has started, the amount of inflammation that the body produces must be controlled. The genes that control inflammation have to be “turned off”, down-regulated, so that inflammatory responses are limited.

Arthritis is an Autoimmune Disorder:
Arthritis is one of many autoimmune disorders in which the body mistakenly produces autoantibodies, antibodies against its own tissues that attach to joint linings, and cartilage which acts as a shock absorber. The presence of autoantibodies may trigger immune cells to release inflammatory molecules that cause damage to the joints and other organ systems.

The Effect of Stress and Weight on Arthritis:
There are many factors that contribute to the discomfort experienced by individuals with joint issues. Two of these most recently investigated are: stress and weight.

Stress:
The body increases the amount of inflammation it produces when it is exposes to constant stress and the stress of pain. It becomes part of a vicious cycle. Stress causes inflammation, and inflammation leads to more stress. There is crosstalk between the nervous, hormonal, and immune systems. Changes in one system effects the other system.

Stressed individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis produce much higher levels of most cytokines than people without arthritis. Immunologically they respond differently to stress.

Weight Issues:
Overweight and obese patients with rheumatoid arthritis have more pain and respond less well to medication, as compared to normal weight patients. Obesity is an inflammatory disease during which fat cells, especially those concentrated around the inner organs, pump out large numbers of inflammatory molecules. Certain inflammatory proteins are found in high number in the abdominal fat tissue of overweight and obese individuals.

Importance of Immune Balance/Immune Homeostasis:
Immune inflammation is tightly regulated by the body. It consists of a) triggering and maintaining inflammatory responses, and b) producing immune messages that decrease and/or entirely stop the inflammation. Imbalances between the two phases of inflammation results in unchecked inflammation, loss of immune homeostasis, and may result in cell and tissues damage like that experienced in rheumatoid arthritis.

The key is to incorporate lifestyle changes to help the body maintain immune balance.

 Help your body return to immune balance.  Dr. Hellen may be contacted at: 302.265.3870 ET USA, or use the contact form. Thank you.

www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/arthritis/basics/definition/con-20034095
www.hopkinsmedicine.org/Press_releases/2003/10_17_03.html
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846478
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ard.bmj.com/content/early/2014/05/12/annrheumdis-2013-205094
www.fasebj.org/content/27/12/4757

People who are heavy and are not physically active, are at greater risk for conditions such as: increased blood sugar, higher pressures on their artery walls (high blood pressure), increased rate and workload on the heart, stroke, joint problems, sleep disorders, difficulty breathing, and even certain types of  cancer.

There are other posts on this blog relevant to the issue of being overweight or obese, but there is little question that most individuals would feel a lot better if they were only 5 or 10 pounds lighter.

When compared to leaner people, adipose tissue, the fat deposits of obese individuals, have higher numbers of, and larger, fat cells.  These cells produce cytokines, immune factors, that are inflammatory in nature and trigger numerous inflammatory conditions including many mentioned above.

Adipose tissue has “immune-like” properties.  For example, macrophages, white blood cells which alert the body to the presence of invaders, are found in high numbers in fat cell clusters.  Additionally, obese individuals have been shown to have  increased levels of proteins in the blood stream that stimulate inflammation.  Overweight or obese people do not fight infections or heal as well as individuals at more appropriate weights.

 The following hypothesis may have validity.  The immune system may “see” components of adipose tissue as “foreign material” that must be eliminated from the body.  If this scenario is correct, when the body “battles” adipose tissue an autoimmune response is triggered, a response in which the immune system destroys its own tissues, resulting in high levels of inflammation. My hypothesis is supported by the fact that obese individuals produce high levels of autoantibody, antibodies against their own tissues. Rather than resulting from inflammation, these autoantibodies may be the trigger for inflammation.

Muscle cells, like fat cells, secrete cytokines, molecules which help the body regulate inflammatory responses. In response to exercise, many different types of cytokines are produced by muscles and other cells.  Cytokine measurements taken after a marathon demonstrated 100 fold increases of certain cytokines, whereas other cytokines were produced that typically dampen an inflammatory response.

The wide spectrum of immune factors that the body produces in response to physical activity helps the body maintain a steady state of inflammation, an immune balance that helps the body defend itself against infection and helps healing, but not so much that innocent by-stander tissues are damaged.  In fact, studies have shown that individuals that are overweight, nevertheless may be healthy, if they are maintain a level of physical fitness.

The bodies of overweight and obese individuals are consistently exposed to self-generated, inappropriate levels of inflammation.  Helping the body return to a healthy balance of immune responses, a state of homeostasis, will go a long ways towards changing their quality of life.

I would be pleased to hear from you if you are interested in changing your quality of life.  I can be contacted at: drhellen@drhellengreenblatt.info or at:  302.265.3870 USA ET.

 


diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/56/6/1517.full

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14679176
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Over the last 18 months, at least 25 children have been affected in the California area by a “polio-like” illness resulting in partial paralysis of five of the children.  As of this week, two out of five of these children have tested positive for enterovirus.  According to the news media, Australia and Asia have also report similar cases.

A commonly found virus, enteroviruses typically result in only mild symptoms such as runny nose, coughing, muscle aches, and sneezing. However, there are 60 different varieties of enteroviruses, and infection with certain types of these viruses results in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies.  Infection with other varieties of enteroviruses can lead to damage of various tissues including skin, muscles, brain, spine, nerve cells, liver, and heart.

Some enteroviruses appear to specifically target the brain and the nervous system, leading to short- or long-term paralysis affecting mobility. So for example, polio enteroviruses attack the nervous system triggering an inflammatory response to destroy the viruses.  The resulting inflammation may lead to mild paralysis, or to an individual becoming completely paralyzed within hours.

Some persistent enteroviruses survive in the body for a prolonged time with continued inflammation and damage to tissues.   So for example, polio patients that initially recover from their disease may continue to experience damage of nerve and muscle cells by inflammatory processes.  This resurgence of symptoms can result in a post-polio syndrome (PPS) years after their original exposure to the virus.

Individuals with post-polio syndrome have high levels of inflammatory cytokines, immune factors, in the spinal fluids between the thin layers of tissues that protect the spinal cord.  Other conditions resulting from enterovirus infection are often associated with the production of inflammatory molecules. Even patients with relatively mild symptoms and no nervous system complications may show increased blood levels of inflammatory immune factors.  This suggests that excessive inflammatory responses are occurring throughout the body.

A delicate balance exists between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses of the body.  The immune system is always on alert defending itself against infection.  However, once the process is triggered, the inflammation must be a measured, controlled response that does not destroy healthy tissue.

www.decodedscience.com/polio-like-virus-california-enterovirus-68-paralyzing-kids/43034
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18219253
www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/post_polio/detail_post_polio.htm
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367714
www.enterovirusfoundation.org/associations.shtml
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776106
 

People often ask how they ended up getting an autoimmune disease, a condition in which their own immune system turns on themselves and destroys healthy by-stander tissues and organs.

My response-the not-yet-proven-hypothesis that molecular mimicry results in autoimmune disease.

Molecular mimicry is a phenomenon in which tissues in the body share a “barcode”, antigenic receptors,  with specific viruses or a bacteria.  The immune system responds by mounting an inflammatory attack against the invading pathogen.  This response targets not only the pathogen, but in addition, tissues that share the same antigenic makeup as the invading microorganism. In short, a terrible error occurs and the body starts destroying itself.

The inflammatory disease rheumatic fever is an excellent example of the possible outcome of molecular mimicry. Damage of heart valves may occur after infection with the bacteria Streptococcus. This development accounts for the panic that many parents experience when their kids come down with “strep throat”.

Antibodies, large unique proteins,  are produced by the immune system when the body is exposed to pathogens.  These specialized proteins attach to the invaders, “flagging” them for destruction by circulating immune cells.  In the case of rheumatic fever, since bacteria and heart valve tissue look alike to the body, antibodies are produced that attach to both surfaces, triggering inflammatory immune responses ultimately resulting in damage to heart valves, as well as death of the bacteria.

The data, controversial, but compelling, is that molecular mimicry, due to viral and bacterial infections,  may also be a trigger for neurological disease.

This concept is reinforced by the fact that multiple sclerosis is a condition in which nerve cells are damaged by uncontrolled levels of inflammation.  Immune cell products mistakenly attack myelin proteins, which make up the protective sheath that “insulates” nerves.  Damage to this covering results in nerve signals becoming intermittent, slowing down, or stopping entirely.  Such nerve damage affects vision, mobility, coordination, balance, bladder, or bowel control.

 A large body of data suggests that infection with herpes virus 6 and/or Epstein-Barr virus triggers  inflammation that leads to nerve cell destruction.  Different viruses and bacteria have been implicated as initiating inflammatory responses in other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

 To understand the role of excessive inflammation in your own condition, enter the condition in combination with the word “inflammation”.  The results you receive will help you understand the importance of achieving immune homeostasis, immune balance of our inflammatory responses.

Let me help you improve your quality of life, naturally. Please contact me at 302.265.3870 (USA ET) or email: DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info

http://www.bjmp.org/content/role-chronic-bacterial-and-viral-infections-neurodegenerative-neurobehavioral-psychiatric-au
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22617826
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18193392
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9761770
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201827
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557285
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859892

Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), nosocomial infections, are caused by a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses.  One bacterium that commonly causes illness is Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile.  Hospitalized children and elderly people are at special risk of acquiring these bacteria, infections that result in severe diarrhea.  Individuals infected with C. difficile are more likely to be admitted to short and long-term care facilities, have longer hospital stays, are more likely to require colon surgery, and are at higher risk of death.

Nosocomial infections are on the increase, probably due to the heightened use of antibiotics used in hospitalized patients.  The antibiotics kill off beneficial bacteria that might offer protection against getting infections such as C. difficile.

Intriguingly, in a recent study, patients admitted to the hospital who were on statins, medications used to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, had a 45% lower risk of getting Clostridium difficile infections compared to individuals that were not on these sorts of medications.

Other studies suggest that statins affect immune responses by down-regulating, inhibiting inflammation.  For example, statins prevent and reverse chronic and relapsing disease in an animal model similar to multiple sclerosis, reduce lung inflammation in animals that exposed to airborne particles, and have been shown to lower the risk of death of individuals suffering from 13 different types of cancers.

In atherosclerosis, primarily caused by an inflammatory response directed against the wall inside blood vessels, statin therapy reduces blood vessel inflammation and significantly reduces markers of inflammation such as hsCRP, high sensitivity C – reactive protein.

Health warnings have been issued by the FDA for statins.  These risks include:  memory loss and confusion, liver damage, heightened diabetes, and for certain statins, muscle weakness.  I am certainly NOT advocating that people use statins to limit inflammation.  Instead, I want the reader to focus on the fact that the effects of statins appear to be due, in the long run, to their ability to modulate acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) inflammation.

 As I try to emphasize in all my posts, the key to good health is to achieve immune homeostasis, the appropriate balance of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses

 Immune homeostasis is most easily achieved through a) consistent physical activity, b) controlling fat deposits around the abdominal area, c) increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits, d) moderate exposure to sunlight (or vitamin D3 supplementation when the sun is not sufficient), e) ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids from a fish source, and f) and daily consumption of hyperimmune egg.

Feel free to contact Dr. Hellen at DrHellen@DrHellenGreenblatt.info with questions or to consult with her. A message may also be left at: 1.302-265.3870 or click on: http://drhellengreenblatt.info/contact-dr-hellen/.

 

http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cdiff/cdiff_infect.html
http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/ACG/35590?utm_content=&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=DailyHeadlines&utm_source=
http://www.mdjunction.com/forums/lyme-disease-support-forums/medicine-treatments/1722560-pubmed-report-c-diff-death-from-lyme-disease/limitstart/40
http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1389315
http://www.medpagetoday.com/HematologyOncology/BreastCancer/35856?utm_content=&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=DailyHeadlines&utm_source=WC&xid=NL_DHE_2012-11-10&eun=g409635d0r&userid=409635&email=spider1222%40hotmail.com&mu_id=5510283
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1201735
http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1389317
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20421792
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/106/16/2041.full
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910717
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1986656/
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1201735

 

The Centers for Disease Control is investigating at least 100 reports of food poisoning, and 18 deaths, due to contaminated cantaloupes. DNA isolated from infected individuals has determined that Listeria is the responsible bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of 93 individuals contacted by monitoring agencies were hospitalized due to their infections. Because of lag times between consumption of these cantaloupes, illness, diagnosis, and laboratory confirmation, more cases are expected to occur.

Five percent of the human population has Listeria in its stool. It is also found in stools of non-human mammals, and birds. This may explain the fact that Listeria is found in water, soil, and animal feed.

Newborns, pregnant women, and individuals with immune disorders such as kidney disease, cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of becoming ill when infected with Listeria. In 89 % of cases, Listeria pass through the intestinal wall and enter the blood stream. From there, they are carried throughout the body and can end up in the brain, spinal cord, heart, eyes, liver, spleen, lungs, bones, and joints.

Instead of being attacked by immune cells, initially, Listeria hides in immune cells, multiplies, and infects other white blood cells. To stop the infection and return to immune balance, immune homeostasis, the body defends itself by releasing inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cell messages, and antibodies, large proteins that mark the bacteria for destruction by inflammatory immune cells.

About half of adults with Listeria infection will be diagnosed with meningitis, an inflammatory condition of the brain and spinal cord. Endocarditis, inflammation of the inner lining of the heart, results in deaths of about 50% of patients.

So, ultimately, excessive inflammation kills infected individuals.

 

www.faqs.org/health/topics/74/Listeriosis.html#ixzz1ZgKQS5E5
www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/100411/index.html#introduction
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830209
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8251578
www.experts.scival.com/mskcc/grantDetail.asp?t=ep1&id=373762&o_id=3&

Many more bacterial genes than human genes are found in the body. Samples from 124 healthy Europeans found on average more than 530,000 unique genes in each sample and 99.1% were from bacteria. These bacteria live symbiotically, on, or in, our bodies. While we provide them with food and lodging, they help us stay healthy in many ways including helping us to digest our food, and providing vitamins and other nutrients for us to use.

Dr. David A. Relman of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA has found that when people take bacteria-killing antibiotics, the microbial ecosystem that returns is different from the microbe population prior to taking antibiotics. Moreover, if the same antibiotic is taken again, even 6 months later, the bacteria take longer to come back and the bacteria are even more different.

Dr. Relman says, “Everything comes with a cost,” he said. “The problem is finding the right balance. As clinicians, we have not been looking at the cost to the health of our microbial ecosystems.”*

Once again, the importance of balance in the body is paramount. Considering that over 75% of the immune system is represented in the gut, immune balance, inflammatory homeostasis, helps the body provide natural resistance to disease. If the immune system is not functioning properly, if it is in disorder, the physical and emotional aspects of our life and health will be out of balance and in disarray.

A body in immune homeostasis is able to respond appropriately to challenges by either “boosting” the “fire power” of an inflammatory immune response to “burn out” an infection, or suppress an inappropriately excessive immune response to the challenge. The key is to maintain immune homeostasis.

*http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/30/science/30microbe.html?pagewanted=2&ref=science

Dengue fever is caused by a virus that is carried by an infected female Aedes mosquito (called a vector) that injects the virus into a human while she is drawing her blood meal, a meal that she needs in order to reproduce. Over 50 million people, in over 100 countries, are infected every year with dengue. Until a report last week, there was still no way to control the disease. More on the study later.

The symptoms of Dengue Fever appear from a few days to two weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The symptoms may be a sudden onset of high fever, nausea, vomiting, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, and pain behind the eyes, which worsens with eye movements.

The Response of the Immune System to Dengue

 There are four genetically similar types of Dengue viruses (subtypes). When a person is exposed to the virus, specialized immune cells produce large proteins called antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Igs), that attach to the virus particles and mark them for destruction by incoming inflammatory immune cells.

Unfortunately, exposure to one of the four subtypes does not confer immunity against the other three types. Even more troublesome, because of the peculiarities of the immune response, if one has been previously exposed to one type of Dengue virus, exposure to another subtype may result in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. In this stage of the disease, there is a significant amount of bleeding and a person may go into shock. Unfortunately, this disease is frequently fatal especially in children or the elderly.

As in all immune responses, a controlled, well-modulated response is needed by the body when it is exposed to a pathogen like Dengue. When the immune system has a balanced inflammatory response to disease, when it is in immune homeostasis, a person is more likely to successfully fight infection and survive. The key is that the body has to generate enough of an inflammatory immune response to destroy the pathogen, but not so much inflammation that nearby healthy tissue is damaged.

Inflammatory Cytokine Storm

Too vigorous, inflammatory response to infection, for example to the Dengue virus during Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, may result in destruction of the walls of blood vessels, bleeding, abnormal clotting, and loss of fluids (which can lead to severe dehydration).

This sort of extreme immune response is also reminiscent of what is seen in diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), in which the body has an inflammatory or cytokine storm directed initially against the lungs, and goes on to destroy many different organs, resulting in death. [Cytokines are small immune molecules that trigger immune responses].

Decrease Mosquito Breeding Opportunities

Prevention- It Only Takes 15 Minutes:
There is no treatment for Dengue Fever, nor has vaccine development been successful. For now, the best way to avoid infection is to lower the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito. Unfortunately, since the Aedes mosquito is active during daytime hours, nets around the bed are not an adequate solution.

However, all mosquitoes need water to complete their life cycle, so it is prudent to eliminate any standing water around the home. Think like a mosquito that is looking to lay eggs—it can be in any container imaginable, or a puddle that will not dry out within a few days.

Keep plant saucers, tarps, coolers, tanks, barrels, drums, bottles, tins, coconut shells, tires, buckets, and trenches, free of water.

Empty, cover them, or turn containers over when not in use, so water does not accumulate.

Keep containers of stored water covered at all times.

Empty refrigerator drip pans at least every other day.

Mr. Minchington Israel, Environmental Health Officer of the Government of the British Virgin Islands mantra is: “It only takes 15 minutes to go around the yard, … in search of stagnant bodies of water and do[ing] something about it.”

Mr. Israel also points out that since so many people have moved out of the countryside and crowded into urban areas, family and community-wide efforts are needed to slow mosquito population growth. In addition to the suggestions above, Mr. Israel strongly advocates:

  • Maintaining properties free of rubbish, junk, and overgrown vegetation.
  • Managing empty lots and abandoned properties.
  • Becoming knowledgeable as to where mosquitoes breed and eliminate these breeding areas.

Promising New Approach:
Last week the prestigious journal Nature, published results from an Australian research group reporting that they were able to stop the transmission of Dengue virus (ǂ). Researchers infected the Aedes mosquito with bacteria that “completely blocks the ability of the virus to grow in mosquitoes” (◊). The bacteria do not kill the mosquito, so the mosquito can continue to reproduce itself, and pass the bacteria to other mosquitoes. The infection is highly contagious so it spreads rapidly throughout the mosquito population. Successful testing in the wild supports its promise as a way to control vector populations. According to Flaminia Catteruccia, who works with malaria-carrying mosquitoes in London, “It’s an environmentally friendly approach that does not affect the mosquitoes, just the [growth of the] virus”(◊).

Personal Defenses:
If this concept works, it will take time for further studies to be completed and vector control to occur, so for now, taking personal responsibility is necessary. So in addition to the recommendations above:

  • Dengue carrying mosquitoes are active during the day, so netting around beds is not as helpful as in other mosquito-borne diseases.
  • Use mosquito repellents on your clothing and person.
  • Screen windows and doors against mosquitoes and use bed nets around ill, bed-ridden individuals.
  • Wear light-colored long-sleeves and slacks with thick socks.
  • A body in immune homeostasis, in immune balance, is better prepared to defend itself against infection.

To optimize one’s immune system: walk or be physically active in other ways for at least 150 minutes a week; eat in a nutritious manner; control your weight; eat darkly-pigmented fruits and vegetables on a daily basis; and consume fish or omega-3 supplements 2-3 times/week.

In addition, it is important to help the body achieve immune homeostasis, immune balance so that the body can battle illness and yet, control unchecked inflammation.

Hyperimmune egg contains a cocktail of antibodies and other active immune factors that help the body balance immune function. Consuming two or more servings/day of hyperimmune egg makes a major difference in your body’s ability to support immune health and heal itself.

ǂ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10355.html#/affil-auth
http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110824/full/news.2011.503.html

Severe nasal reactions to medications, pollen, dander, foods, fragrances, and other environmental stimuli may occur as people age. These responses, often not a true allergic response, are termed vasomotor or nonallergic rhinitis (1), because they are not due to a typical “allergic” response.

Nonallergic rhinitis (“itis” as in inflammation) is associated with increased irritability, problems in focusing, sleep issues, and daytime sleepiness. Also individuals with rhinitis are at higher risk of getting asthma (2).

Hallmarks of nonallergic rhinitis include inflamed sinuses, drippy, congested nose, chronic sneezing or coughing. Nonallergic rhinitis is seen when inflammation occurs in the sinuses of the face, and the nasal membranes and blood vessels in the nose expand filling the lining of the nose with blood and fluids.

According to the Mayo Clinic specific triggers for nonallergic rhinitis also include (3):

Infections: Viral infections can result in nonallergic rhinitis due to postnasal drip and nasal discharge. Facial pain and sinusitis (inflammation and pressure in the sinus cavities of the face) may also be an unwelcome outcome.

Medications: Overuse of decongestant nasal sprays can cause rhinitis as can medications such as sedatives, beta blockers, antidepressants, oral contraceptives, erectile dysfunction drugs, blood pressure medications, aspirin, ibuprofen, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Environmental: Strong odors, such as perfumes or cleaning fluids, smoking, secondhand smoke, dust, can become a cause of nonallergic rhinitis.

Foods and beverages: Nonallergic rhinitis may occur when you eat, especially when eating hot or spicy foods. Drinking alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, also may cause the membranes inside your nose to swell, leading to nasal congestion.

Weather: Temperature or humidity changes can trigger the membranes inside your nose to swell and cause a runny or stuffy nose. Dr. Rohit Katial, Director of Adult Allergy and Immunology at National Jewish Health, Denver, CO states “Even cold air becomes more problematic as we get older” (1).

Stress and Exercise: Stress and exercise have been shown to induce inflamed sinuses.

Hormonal changes: Changes in hormones due to menstruation or pregnancy, or a autoimmune hormonal conditions.

The majority of inflammatory illnesses result from over production of pro-inflammatory (inflammation enhancing) cytokines, and other immune cellular factors. Our survival on earth depends on the ability of the body to rapidly generate appropriate inflammatory responses to “burn out” pathogens that threaten to destroy us.

The body must be able to modulate the amount of inflammation produced and decrease its intensity as the challenge is met. The key to health is immune homeostasis. We must generate enough of an inflammatory response to meet the threat, but in controlled amounts so that bystander tissues and organs are effected.

1) http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111903480904576510302458640840.html
2) http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/874171-overview
3) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nonallergic-rhinitis/DS00809/DSECTION=causes

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